WP2: 4D modelling of mineralised belts


Short Video Animations

Skellefte District in 4D Skellefte District in 4D: animation by Pietari Skyttä (LTU)

Open (file size 5.2 MB)

Kupferschiefer Restoration in the Lubin Region, PolandKupferschiefer Restoration in the Lubin Region, Poland: animation by Pablo Mejia and Jean-Jacques Royer (INPL)

Enlarge (file size 0,0 MB)


The objective in WP2 is to develop robust 4D geomodels visualized in user-friendly software that is available to all partners, and which can be used for resource estimation as well as to assess the likely environmental and societal impacts of mineral extraction throughout the entire life cycle from discovery to closure, as well as financial and legislative limitations, to avoid conflicts in land use. By building the geomodels it will be demonstrated that the resource base can be extended not only by increasing the resource base of mined commodities but by also including new commodities such as high-tech metals and industrial minerals in existing deposits.


4D geology models take into account the geological evolution in 3 dimensions integrated over time. This will be achieved by using detailed thematic geoinformation gathered at scales from regional down to individual deposits from data retrieval from mines, drill holes and remote sensing: geological units, rock alteration, zonation of metals and other minerals, hydrogeology, structure and tectonics, magnetics, gravity, reflection seismics, electromagnetics, electrics, radiation, heat flow, gas/vapour emission etc.

Four major active mining belts in Europe have been selected for the demonstration of concepts:

Fennoscandian Shield (Skellefte-Pyhäsalmi)

Forsudetic belt (Kupfershiefer area) of Poland-Germany

Iberia, both Portugal and Spain

Hellenic belt of northern Greece


The first 4D geo-model was compiled for the Skellefte district, Sweden and the first 4D restoration tests have been carried out in the Forsudetic Basin, Poland and Germany. This success paves the way towards new mining exploration as 3D methods allow investigation down to several 1000 m depths. Indeed, the first results in detecting new ore bodies in the vicinity of mines of partners are emerging.

IT practitioners from the exploration and mining industry and from geological surveys, including representatives from each of the 4 mineral belts received extensive training in the advanced functions of the gOcad software, including Kine3d Restoration techniques, as well as on the management of geodata and geomodels using the “Geosciences in Space and Time” (GST) software system which has been developed as a contribution to ProMine by TU BAF’s Geoscience Mathematics and Informatics group. Aimed at providing interoperability to facilitate geoscientific communication, GST’s potential for commercial exploitation has been followed up through the setting up of a spin-off company.